Category Lecture Review

“Jumping Genes” in the Human Genome


In 1983, Barbara McClintock was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for her discovery of mobile elements in the genome capable of undergoing transposition – which she termed “jumping genes”. McClintock was a key leader in the early field of cytogenetics, and first used cytogenetic methods to study maize chromosomes. She first came […]

How does the ER ensure proteins are correctly folded?


What is the ER Quality Control Mechanism? Chaperone proteins are involved in assisting protein translocation, retaining unfolded proteins in the ER, and mediating the unfolded protein response. There are 3 main ER Chaperone proteins involved:         I.            BIP Binds to exposed amino acid sequences that are normally buried in the interior of a […]

P Elements of Drosophila Melanogaster


What are P Elements? P elements are DNA transposable elements, that carry genes required for transposase activity and genes that encode a repressor that prevents expression of transposase. P elements have a characteristic 31bp inverted repeat at both ends of the element. P elements can be either full length or short length. The full length […]

Noncoding DNA and Genome Evolution


Noncoding DNA and Genome Evolution   Noncoding DNA, why does it exist? There are many possibilities but it is thought that noncoding DNA has a function that has not yet been discovered hence why the cell is maintain it – it is essential for proper cell function. Another possibility is that noncoding sequences might be […]

Genome Evolution


There are two fundamentally different ways in which new genes could be acquired by a genome: By duplicating some or all of the existing genes in the genome. By acquiring genes from other species. Gene Duplication Mechanisms of Duplication There are many ways by which short segments of DNA containing one or a few genes […]

Lambda Phage Replication: Lysis or Lysogeny?


Lambda Phage Replication Expression of Early Genes upon Phage Entry Upon entry of the phage genome into a cell, the phage genome circularises by joining together of the cos sites. Host RNA polymerases begin transcription from PL and PR,however due to rho-dependant termination signals, transcription of PL is stopped after the N protein has been […]

Professor Charles Streuli – Integrins in mammary cells and how they can cause cancerous tumours


N.B. The information may be incorrect as these are just notes I acquired from attending the lecture, and the topics are out of my grasp as they are directed to postgraduates. Initially I didn’t know what integrins are, but it seems to be a receptor of some kind which sets of a cascade of signals […]

The Brain After Cancer – Lecture Review Part 2/2


So, this is a continuation of ‘The brain after cancer’ lecture. The Biology of Stress As you all should know the stress response is important… Personally, it makes me do things rather than laze about. It is involved in the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) which in turn activates the production of cortisol […]

The Brain After Cancer – Lecture Review Part 1/2


I have attended ‘The Stuart Green Memorial Lecture 2012’ and this will be a short review of the lecture that was excellently presented by Michael Stevens, Professor of Paediatric Oncology at Bristol Royal Hospital for Children. The Brain After Cancer There are many issues that effect the brain after cancer a few of which are: Cognitive […]